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5th Historical Dance Symposium
Burg Rothenfels am Main
10 - 14 June 2020

Conference programme

 

 In what follows, you will initially find an overview of the Symposium programme. Further down, there follow summaries of the various contributions. Information on our speakers is to be found here.

Lectures:

Simultandolmetscherin e dunkelrot

  1. Bennett, Giles: Ost-westlicher Kulturtransfer im Ballsaal – das Repertoire eines österreichischen Tanzlehrers in Lemberg in den frühen 1790er Jahren
  2. Burlock, Hillary: "True blue and Mrs. Crewe": the role of Whig and Tory balls and their hostesses in Georgian political culture
  3. Eremina-Solenikova, Eugenia: Russian ball culture in the first half of 18th century
  4. Esposito, Maria Cristina: "Ho lasciato di fare il parrucchiere / per insegnare la coreografia" The Scuola di ballo (1759) according to Carlo Goldoni
  5. Ertz, Matilda: Nineteenth-century theatrical ballabile and the Italian ball as social and political discourse of the Risorgimento
  6. Filimonov, Dmitry: Markowski and his salons
  7. Finkel, Carola: Les Plaisirs du Bal du Mannheim – eine Betrachtung zum Tanzrepertoire in der zweiten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts
  8. Harris-Warrick, Rebecca: Ballroom scenes on the French operatic stage
  9. Heiter, Gerrit Berenike: Hofbälle der österreichischen Habsburger im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert, Zeremoniell – Selbstinszenierung – Vergnügen
  10. Hoffmann-Cabenda, Birte und Zöllner, Eva: "Das tanzende Hamburg",  der Gesellschaftsabend als Ausdruck bürgerlichen Machtanspruches
  11. Mettel, Michaela: Der Ball als cultural performance - Kriterien einer methodologischen Analyse
  12. Monahin, Nona: Negotiating Text and Movement: Some Challenges in Staging Dance in Shakespeare’s Plays
  13. Rannow, Angela: Zwar ist sie hin, die Prinzessin: Tanz bei kur-, fürstlichen und adeligen Hochzeiten am Dresdner Hof im 17. Jahrhundert
  14. Sundukova, Daria: Balls in the Russian Noble Assembly

Research Posters:

  1. Derkach, Maria: Using Russian-German relationship for the reconstruction of a Russian ball at the beginning of the 19th century
  2. Derkach, Maria and Filimonov, Dmitry: The Waltz in the late 18th - early 19th century: styles, use and techniques
  3. Esposito, Maria Cristina: Police ordinances to be observed during balls and masquerade parties
  4. de Guardiola, Susan: Waltzes, Newports, and Rackets: Common Movement Units in Late 19th Century American Couple Dance
  5. Jones, Alan: Landrin Duport
  6. Mettel, Michaela: Dissertationsprojekt: Performing Gender? Geschlechterrollen in den Tanztraktaten der italieni-schen Renaissance
  7. Mikhailova-Smolniakova, Ekaterina: Ball scenes in European painting in the late 16th-early 17th centuries and the problem of dance iconography
  8. Tuck, Bill: The Lunatic Asylum Ball: voyeuristic spectacle or dance therapy?
  9. Vecchi, Davide and Guidotti Magnani, Daniele Pascale: Dancing the Power: Dance, music and architecture in political rituals of baroque Bologna

Workshops:

  1. Daye: Anne: Law students’ Ball c.1600
  2. Feste, Irène: Variations of the "trait de la contredanse" in the 19th Century
  3. de Guardiola, Susan: Waltzes, Newports, and Rackets: Common Movement Units in Late 19th Century American Couple Dance.
  4. Hazebroucq, Hubert: The agréments in the Ballroom Minuet after 1750: evolution, variants and functions
  5. Jablonka, Guillaume: Improvising the "Allemande" within the space of a ballroom: Hypothesis based on Brives Nouvelle Méthode from 1779
  6. Kondratenko, Rostislav and Filimonov, Dmitry: French branles for opening the ball in the late 16th–17th centuries

Dance Evenings:

  1. Daye, Anne: "New from France": Cotillons in Georgian London
  2. Jones, Alan: American Ball Dances from the Turn of the 19th C.
  3. Menard-Pugliese, Barbara and Pugliese, Antonia: European Ballroom Dances of the second quarter of the 19th century

Short Performances:

  1. Cie Fantaisies Baroques (dir: P-F. Dollé, I. Feste): "Le Bal" a short performance for the Historical Dance Symposium
  2. La Danza München (dir: J. Nowaczek): „Mit ganzem Herzen und mit ganzer Seele“ – Die Ballszene aus den „Leiden des jungen Werther“ von Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
  3. Tanzkompanie Chorea Basileae (dir: M. Gal): Ein Ball in Ljubljana

 

Further Information:

Lectures:

Bennett, Giles: Ost-westlicher Kulturtransfer im Ballsaal – das Repertoire eines österreichischen Tanzlehrers in Lemberg in den frühen 1790er Jahren

Der Vortrag beschäftigt sich mit einem bisher fast unbekannten 24-seitigen Pamphlet des Joseph Faenza, eines Tanzlehrers für die neue Elite der deutschsprachigen Österreicher in Lemberg, der multiethnischen Hauptstadt des kurz zuvor annektierten, zuvor polnischen Galizien. Faenza bewirbt in der Broschüre seine Dienste als Lehrer für richtige Haltung und korrektes Verhalten (und steht dabei im aktuellen pädagogischen Diskurs seiner Zeit), aber auch für alle Formen des Gesellschaftstanzes. Er beschreibt die Tanzgattungen kurz aber treffend (und macht auch einige technische Bemerkungen) – seine Liste enthält auch einige bemerkenswerte Überraschungen. Kürzlich veröffentlichte Details zu seiner späteren Karriere in Ljubljana erlauben es, das Pamphlet früher zu datieren als bisher angenommen, nämlich in die frühen 1790er Jahre. Die Einbeziehung des Mazur mag den Transfer dieser Tanzart von der polnischen in die deutsche Tanzkultur illustrieren (ähnlich wie bei der – hier auch diskutierten – Polonaise einige Jahrzehnte früher). Bereits in dieser frühen Phase passte Faenza den Tanz dem Geschmack des deutschen Milieus in Lemberg an, ein direktes Beispiel für Akkulturations- und Assimilationsprozesse im Tanz.

 

Burlock, Hillary: "True blue and Mrs. Crewe": the role of Whig and Tory balls and their hostesses in Georgian political culture

The ballroom was an instrumental institution for socialisation in Georgian Britain, a nexus for social and political interactions. Dance was the nexus extending the sociable, encompassing public, ideological, and political underpinnings. Political hostesses were well aware of the social and political impacts of holding balls, routs, and dinners to advance their party or political candidate. Between 1760 and 1830, political hostesses including Lady Grey, the Duchess of Gordon, Mrs. Crewe, Lady Melbourne, Lady Fox, Lady Chatham, Lady North, and the Duchess of Devonshire were actively involved in the political realm. Based on their families’ respective political influence and social power, women were extensions of their family in consolidating their social credit. This paper explores the political implications of dance, the strategizing and maneuvering, and the political symbols employed at the balls held by these political hostesses. Indeed, the ballroom was a politically-charged arena of display in which the intricacies of social behaviour and movement through dance contributed to elite political life in eighteenth-century Britain.

 

Eremina-Solenikova, Eugenia: Russian ball culture in the first half of 18th century

By the end of the 17th century, the Russian kingdom was a country that followed its own traditions. It kept apart from Western Europe. We know for sure that there were no balls in Russia at that time. After Peter the Great became the full-fledged ruler of Russia, he founded St. Petersburg and began to introduce dance culture everywhere. And after 50 years, during the reign of Peter’s daughter Elizabeth, they said about Russian balls that in St. Petersburg within a month all the Parisian novelties were danced. Undoubtedly, this was an incredible progress: within half a century a culture of balls was created, new traditions were instilled, a steady interest of Russian society in dancing was created.

Russian culture has always been heavily dependent on the will and interests of emperors. The study of the reign of Peter shows that during the assemblies of that period, numerous new dances were introduced into Russian culture. Under the regency of Anna Ioannovna, balls were held regularly in St. Petersburg. A tradition was formed of regular imperial balls associated with important dates. It was Anna Ioannovna who authorized dance education in Russia, and teachers arrived who also gave private lessons. At her command a dance school was created, now known around the world as the Vaganova Ballet Academy.

Under Elizabeth there was a surge in ballroom culture, in particular, masquerades came into fashion. The dancing skills of the courtiers (who were observed by all of Russia) were developing. Also under Elizabeth, the first dance teachers of Russian origin appeared.

 

Ertz, Matilda: Nineteenth-century theatrical ballabile and the Italian ball as social and political discourse of the Risorgimento

Italian ballets of the nineteenth century began to include more and more group dances as Italians marched toward unification. Large portions of pure dance tended to be avoided in Italian theaters at the outset of the century (such as in Viganò’s coreodramas), where audiences preferred the dramatic action over strings of danced numbers. Nonetheless, the group dances, called “ballabile,” proliferated and began to be presented in a series that encapsulated the sets of then-popular social and character dances. By embodying familiar social and national dance, these portions of the ballet capitalized on the audience’s experiences at balls. This was true especially after 1850 as the sets commonly included waltzes, polkas, mazurkas, and other national dances, and often culminated with the the high-energy galop. The dances were increasingly highlighted and advertised in the libretti for the ballets with greater frequency after the mid-century. Since the theater was one of the few places where Italians gathered in large numbers, it was essential to the spread of ideas, both political and social, as well as social dance trends. This study examines the role of the group dances within the ballets, their musical features, and choreographic features (as much as can be determined). Further, I examine the relationship between the series of the group dances found in ballets and those danced at balls during the nineteenth century. Select ballets, including especially those in which a ball was staged as a part of the dramatic action or in which overt Risorgimento themes are present, serve as case studies. By the century’s end Pallerini’s and Manzotti’s ballets (such as Excelsior) included large numbers of dancers and prolific group dances and can be seen as the culmination of the trend towards a greater number of and complexity within the group dances. This trend can also be read against the backdrop of the Risorgimento as representing staged notions of a collective, unified Italy.

 

Esposito, Maria Cristina: “Ho lasciato di fare il parrucchiere / per insegnare la coreografia” The Scuola di ballo (1759) according to Carlo Goldoni

The Scuola di ballo is a little-known comedy by Carlo Goldoni (Venice, 1707 – Paris, 1793), not even mentioned in his own Mémoires. It was recited for the first time on October 22, 1759 at the Vendramin Theater of San Luca in Venice, repeated only one time and published in 1792. The comedy, in five acts, ironically investigates the background of the world of dance and dancers in mid-eighteenth century Venice. The action takes place in the dance school of Monsieur Rigadon, who abandoned the hairdressing profession to become a choreographer. Here the relationships between the greedy and lascivious master, listless students, mature women chasing husband, unscrupulous intermediaries are intertwined. The dance school represents a “middle world” governed by economic interest, in which the practice of dancing is intertwined with the theme of love aimed at economic and social redemption through a good marriage. A meeting point between social classes, in which the contrast between the high and the low linguistic register causes grotesque effects. The plot of the comedy develops on Rigadon's attempt to deceive the impresario by having him cast the worst student.

In spite of the coreutical topic, the Scuola di ballo didn’t get the favor of the public, probably because of the writing in triplets. But the complex construction of the plot, full of intrigue and well-defined characters, makes the comedy very interesting in the eyes of the modern reader: the world of dance is explored with regard to the dances in use, such as in the polemical hints against the figure of the master swindler and the theatrical impresarios. Underestimated from the point of view of the Goldonian studies, the Scuola di ballo is certainly able to enrich the picture of the social history of dance in the eighteenth century through the eyes of the authoritative playwright.

 

Filimonov, Dmitry: Markowski and his salons.

The personae of choreographers and dance teachers are often not less interesting than their works. In the second half of the 19th century in Paris there were many wonderful dance teachers. Most of the names are familiar to us mainly due to their publications. However, not all dancing masters wrote treatises or published dances of their composition. One of the most outstanding persons in Paris in the second half of the 19th century was Monsieur Markowski, a dancing master, choreographer, organizer of salons and balls. His name sometimes is listed in the descriptions of the dances, where he is usually marked as the author but he never published a book himself. Some of his dances made its way to the USA, Germany and Russia and were included in many treatises across the world. But in fact, we even do not know the first name of Markowski.

In the present work we analyzed records from newspapers, police reports and other publications from the 1840s to 1880s that help shed light on Markowski’s work in Paris. It turned out that «Markowski» was a pseudonym. He was not only a brilliant choreographer but also a businessman that made «Markowski» a luxury trade mark while trying to solve money problems under his real name. We found his real name, places where he worked and many stories from the life of this dance teacher and his salons. Our work reveals the hard life of a self-employed dancing master in Paris in the second half of the 19th century.

 

Finkel, Carola: Les Plaisirs du Bal du Mannheim – eine Betrachtung zum Tanzrepertoire in der zweiten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts

Les Plaisirs du Bal du Mannheim, eine anonyme und undatierte Publikation von Contredanses, ist zwar vom Titel her nicht unbekannt, hat aber bislang in der Tanzforschung keine Beachtung gefunden. Dies allerdings zu Unrecht, denn die enthaltenen Choreographien sind ein bedeutendes Zeugnis für die Entwicklung des Tanzrepertoires in der zweiten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts. Sechs der insgesamt zwanzig Contredanses sind sogenannte cotillons en colonne. Diese Tanzform wurde bislang nur flüchtig thematisiert. Der Vortrag befasst sich mit der Entstehung dieser neuen Form des Gesellschaftstanzes und mit seinen verschiedenen Ausprägungen. Dabei zeigt sich, dass die Choreographien in Les Plaisirs besondere Merkmale haben, die sich von anderen erhaltenen Quellen dieser Tanzform abheben.

Aber nicht nur für den cotillon en colonne, sondern auch für die Frühgeschichte eines anderen Balltanzes sind die Tänze in diesem Druck ein interessanter „missing link“, wie im Vortrag dargestellt wird. Ergänzend wird der entstehungsgeschichtliche Kontext der Publikation thematisiert. So konnte für den Druck das exakte Publikationsjahr ermittelt werden, für das bislang 1777 angenommen wurde. Damit verbunden wird die Frage nach der Autorschaft von Choreographien und Musik diskutiert.

 

Harris-Warrick, Rebecca: Ballroom scenes on the French operatic stage

Once the Paris Opera had begun expanding beyond mythological settings to contemporary ones, the staging of masked balls became a trope of the repertoire. Initially set in Venice, starting with “L’Italie” in Campra’s L’Europe galante (1697), masked balls were later depicted as taking place in French spaces—not just ballrooms, but in fairs set on the banks of the Seine. Ball scenes served several dramatic purposes. First, they enriched plotlines with scenes of deception and unmasking, often in the service of testing marital fidelity. Second, they allowed for an extended sequence of dancing that nonetheless conformed to fundamental French principles of dramatic verisimilitude. Third, they held up a mirror to French audiences, one that reflected an image of their own social practices back at them, although the mirror might be idealizing or distorted or both at the same time.
This talk will use ballroom scenes found in three early18th-century opera-ballets — Mouret’s Les Fêtes de Thalie (1714), Montéclair’s Les Fêtes de l’été (1716), and Campra’s Ballet des âges (1718) — as windows not only onto the dramatic purposes served by such scenes, but onto the music that set the dancers in motion and — to the extent that it can be recaptured — the choreography.

 

Heiter, Gerrit Berenike: Hofbälle der österreichischen Habsburger im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert, Zeremoniell – Selbstinszenierung – Vergnügen

Wie in ganz Europa wurden auch an den Höfen der österreichischen Habsburger während des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts zeremonielle Bälle zu Hochzeiten, Geburtstagen oder Krönungen getanzt und in verschiedenen zeitgenössischen Dokumenten wie Festbeschreibungen, Zeitungen oder Augenzeugenberichten festgehalten. Allerdings ist die Quellenlage bruchstückhaft; es existieren keine normativen Texte die es erlauben, den Verlauf exakt zu rekonstruieren. Trotzdem lassen sich verschiedene konstituierende Elemente im Ablauf eines solchen Balles erkennen.

Bei den Bällen im 16. sowie bei jenen bis zur Mitte des 17. Jahrhunderts erfolgte zuerst ein zeremonieller Balleröffnungsteil: Hier tanzten nur zwei oder drei der ranghöchsten Paare in hierarchischer Reihenfolge vor dem versammelten Hofstaat. Ihnen voraus schritten oder tanzten Wachsfackeln tragende Vortänzer, deren Anzahl mit absteigender Hierarchie der Paare ebenso abnahm. Diese Vortänzer stammten aus dem männlichen Adel und konnten, je nach Anlass, sowohl sehr hochstehende Persönlichkeiten als auch Edelknaben sein. Diese Tänze fungierten hauptsächlich zur Inszenierung von Rang, konnten aber auch dazu dienen, jemandem besondere Ehre zuteil werden zu lassen. Auch bei Bällen, die im Anschluss an Turniere organisiert wurden, fand vor dem allgemeinen Ball ein zeremoniell geregelter Teil statt, der sich an der Preisverleihung orientierte. Ebenso wie in Frankreich lässt sich an den Höfen der österreichischen Habsburger der Übergang von einer Hofballettaufführung zu einem Ball beobachten. Die höfische Tanzkultur, welche weit bis ins 17. Jahrhundert hinein vor allem in deutscher und italienischer Tradition stand, führte zu einer hybriden Ballkultur, bei der nach dem zeremoniellen Teil sowohl deutsch als auch italienisch getanzt wurde, wobei in den Quellen das reine Ballvergnügen nicht weiter dokumentiert wird.

 

Hoffmann-Cabenda, Birte und Zöllner, Eva: »Das tanzende Hamburg«,  der Gesellschaftsabend als Ausdruck bürgerlichen Machtanspruches

Das politische und gesellschaftliche Leben in Hamburg in der Zeit der Wende vom 19. zum 20. Jahrhundert wurde von den großen Kaufmannsdynastien der Hansestadt dominiert, die den Takt des Kulturlebens der Stadt angaben. Bei der privaten Freizeitgestaltung blieb dieser familiär eng miteinander verknüpfte städtische Bürgeradel kaufmännischen Geblüts gern unter seinesgleichen. Ähnlich verhielt es sich auch bei den in jener Zeit besonders beliebten großen Gesellschaftsabenden zu wohltätigen Zwecken: Diese Veranstaltungen waren ein Gipfelpunkt der Selbstinszenierung hamburgischer Patrizierfamilien. Hier präsentierten sich in zuvor wochenlang einstudierten Choreographien »historischer« Ballszenen Hunderte von mitwirkenden »Damen und Herren der Gesellschaft« der Öffentlichkeit, bevor der Abend in einem rauschenden, Darsteller und Publikum einenden Ball endete. Rudolph Knoll (1862–1916), ein weit über Hamburgs Grenzen hinaus geschätzter Tanzlehrer und Ballettmeister des Deutschen Schauspielhauses, lieferte dafür Ballett-Pantomimen wie Das tanzende Hamburg, 1813–1898 (1898), untermalt von der Musik des Hamburger »Walzerkönigs« und Strauß-Freunds Oscar Fetrás. Mit diesen tänzerisch ausgedeuteten Rückschauen auf die Geschichte Hamburgs zeigte das Großbürgertum seine persönliche Verbundenheit mit der Stadt – untermauerte aber auch mit größtmöglicher Öffentlichkeitswirkung den über Jahrhunderte gewachsenen selbstverständlichen Anspruch auf Geltung, Einfluss und die Macht, die Geschicke Hamburgs auch in Zukunft an vorderster Position zu lenken.

 

Mettel, Michaela: Der Ball als cultural performance - Kriterien einer methodologischen Analyse

Seit den einigen Jahren wird das Konzept des Performativen, losgelöst vom reinen linguistischen Sprechakt, immer mehr in die geschichts- und kulturwissenschaftliche Methodik aufgenommen. Im Kontext dieser Methode zur Untersuchung menschlichen Verhaltens wird davon ausgegangen, dass jedes menschliche Handeln Perfomanz ist, also eine öffentliche Darstellung seiner selbst. Eng verbunden mit der Performanz ist die anthropologische Kategorie der Inszenierung, das in Erscheinung bringen von gesellschaftlichen oder kulturellen Phänomenen, die auf natürlichem Wege nicht zustande kämen.

Es erscheint im ersten Moment nicht ungewöhnlich, vom Ball als eigenständigen, performativen Akt oder einer Inszenierung zu sprechen. Jedoch geht dieser selbstverständlichen Annahme unweigerlich die Frage voraus: wie wird das Performative im Kontext des Balles konstruiert?

In der Geschichts- wie auch Kulturwissenschaft bietet sich im Phänomen des Balls ein weites Spektrum an Untersuchungsansätzen, die einen festen Kriterienkatalog zum einen aufzeigen und zum anderen die Möglichkeit bieten, aus anderen Bereichen theoretische Akzente in die Analyse einfließen zu lassen: Wie konstituiert sich der Ball selbst als kulturelles Phänomen? Welche politischen, gesellschaftlichen, kulturellen und auch privaten Inszenierungen sind im Vorfeld planbar? Oder definieren sich diese erst durch den performativen Akt des Balles selbst? Welche Rolle können die einzelnen sozialen Akteure im Verlaufe einer Ballnacht spielen?

Diesen und weiteren Fragen nach den kulturwissenschaftlichen, anthropologischen oder auch soziologischen Prämissen soll in dem Vortrag nachgegangen werden. 

 

Monahin, Nona: Negotiating Text and Movement: Some Challenges in Staging Dance in Shakespeare’s Plays

Shakespeare’s plays contain numerous references to dance, some of which are used to create puns, others to illuminate a particular character or dramatic situation. Dancing also occurs as part of the action of many plays, in what we today might call “ball scenes” (although, strictly speaking, in Shakespeare’s England such episodes of social dancing would have been referred to as “revels” or merely as “dancing”); however, in such cases Shakespeare rarely indicates which dances he may have had in mind.

One challenge to choreographers and directors using period staging is to find historically informed steps and movements that are appropriate to the specific dramatic situation. Another, often related, problem is to make Shakespeare’s dance references intelligible to today’s audiences. Additional questions that directors or choreographers may need to consider include: how might such scenes be handled in productions not using period staging? What further issues arise in productions of Shakespeare in translation?

I will address these challenges through an examination of dance scenes in several of Shakespeare’s plays, such as Romeo and Juliet, Much Ado about Nothing, The Tempest, and The Winter’s Tale. Additionally, I will discuss the staging of these dance scenes in selected filmed versions of the plays, and, drawing on my experience in reconstructing and staging Renaissance dances and choreographing for Shakespeare productions, I will proffer my own approaches.

 

Rannow, Angela: Zwar ist sie hin, die Prinzessin: Tanz bei kur-, fürstlichen und adeligen Hochzeiten am Dresdner Hof im 17. Jahrhundert

Von skizzenhaft bis akribischen Akten des kursächsischen Oberhofmarschallamtes ausgehend geht es in diesem Beitrag um den Tanz am Dresdner Hof bei kur-, fürstlichen und adeligen Beilagern des 17. Jahrhunderts. Hochzeiten bieten sich dafür besonders an: geheiratet wurde immer, auch in Notzeiten. Aber wurde auch immer getanzt? Hinsichtlich konkreter Tänze, des Grades ihrer Beherrschung oder gar tänzerischer faux pas schweigt das Quellenmaterial der sächsischen Bürokratie delikat. Peniblen „Quecklisten“, akkuraten Ordnungen, detaillierten Dienstwartungen und ungefehrlichen Entwürfen lassen sich jedoch etliche Geheimnisse hinsichtlich des Tanzens am Dresdner Hof des 17. Jahrhunderts entlocken. Das betrifft den Ablauf, den Schauplatz der Tanzenden, die zum Tanze aufwartenden Musiker, die Tanzenden und ihre Funktionen beim Tanz. Wie so oft erweist sich als besonders aufschlussreich, was nicht geregelt und der dexterität, dem Belieben und impliziten Wissen der Anwesenden überlassen wurde.

 

Sundukova, Daria: Balls in the Russian Noble Assembly

The Russian Noble Assembly, founded in 1783, was one of the most fashionable establishments in Moscow. Its regular balls and masquerades during the social season (from November till April) gained an excellent reputation for its refined public and gorgeous dance hall – and highly influenced ball culture all over Russia.

The lecture will follow different aspects of the ball organization in the Russian Noble Assembly (late 18th century – 1840s): site, number of attendants, ticket price, formats of dancing events, musicians, servants, dances, dress-code, refreshments, supper, and security. Who organized the balls, what do we know about income and expenses, what problems did the Assembly face and what ways were chosen to overcome them? Beside these questions, such aspects as social and political environment, the problem of communication between imperial power and noble society during the social entertainments will be revealed. The connections between the Assembly and one of the most famous Moscow dancing masters of the time, Pierre Jogel, will be shown as well.

This research is based mostly on papers from the Russian Noble Assembly collection (Moscow Central State Archive), but also on the Assembly rules, letters, memoires, publications in periodicals, satire works and guidebooks.

 

 

Research Posters:

Derkach, Maria: Using Russian-German relationship for the reconstruction of a Russian ball at the beginning of the 19th century

The reconstruction of a ball in Russia at the beginning of the 19th century is quite complicated because of the lack of dance manuals at that time. Indeed, between Kuskov’s (1794) and Petrovsky’s (1825) books no dance manuals and even mentions of the existence of such sources have not been found yet. Nevertheless the balls in Russia were surely an essential part of leasure time of Russian aristocracy, as the memoirs tell us. In search for solutions many links lead us to German sources. First we need to remember that beginning with Catherine II all wifes of Russian monarchs were German. Secondly, very often the tutors of Russian aristocracy were German as well. There are also some clues in books: the style of the language, in which Petrovsky writes his book, makes us think he had German roots in his language. Another valuable German source of 1806 is the book of Ivensen published in Riga, which already had become a part of Russia.

On the other hand Russian dance culture was not identical to the German one and some dances were poplular in one country and almost not danced in another. For example, Monimask and Matredur much more popular in Russia while Anglaises, which were an essential part of a German ball of the 1st decade of XIX century, were rarely danced in Russia. Studying German dance books together with Russian memoirs helps us to understand the true picture of the Russian dance culture.

 

Derkach, Maria and Filimonov, Dmitry: The Waltz in the late 18th - early 19th century: styles, use and techniques

The study of a German turning dance (which appeared as Deutscher, Dreher, Länderer, Waltzer and under many other names) in the first half of the 18th century is not that easy to fulfil because in Germany it was considered not that appropriate for a ballroom in comparison with French dances. Dancing masters became more tolerant towards this dance in the second half of the 18th century and even started to include it into other dance forms. Still there are no clear German descriptions of the techniques of this dance. The situation changes right on the turn of the century. After 1800 lots of German sources appear, which are quite unanimous in describing three types of turning dances: slow turning, quick turning and jumping turning, though their names may differ from source to source. The latter type seems to mix with the second one and evolves in 1820s into a huge variety of "hops" waltzes. As to the first one, the descriptions remain the same.

Knowing the situation in the first third of the 19th century we can try to find descriptions of the 18th century turning techniques. No wonder that German authors didn’t describe their own national dance, as everybody at that time knew how to dance it. Luckily for us there was a French choreographer Brives, who described 4 techniques of «Valx»: one French and three German ones.

The relationship between waltz techniques in 1800s and in 1820s gives food for thought and casts doubts on the modern reconstruction of the French slow waltz based on the description by Thomas Wilson. We can also find the source for Wilson’s arm positions by comparing this English treatise to German dance books of the early 19th century.

 

Esposito, Maria Cristina: Police ordinances to be observed during balls and masquerade parties 

Among the archival documentation preserved at the Teatro Marrucino in Chieti (Teatro Lirico d'Abruzzo, Italy), inaugurated with the name of “Real Teatro San Ferdinando” (dedicated to Ferdinand I of Bourbon) in January 1818 with a grand ball, the documentation relating to the censorship and regulations of social dances, which this poster intends to present, is particularly interesting. The Theater, which became the Marrucino Theater in 1861 (from the name of the ancient Marrucini, an Italian pre-Roman population) with the Unification of Italy, preserves the archive documentation relating to the "Police Ordinances to be observed during Balls and Masquerade parties": Among the chapters of Ordinances: prohibited masks with clothes worn by Ministers, Magistrates and public officials; masks that offend public decency are forbidden; the use of unpleasant or monstrous masks is forbidden; forbidden to carry arms or sticks; after 24 no one can have face masks; forbidden to throw objects at masked people.

 

de Guardiola, Susan: Waltzes, Newports, and Rackets: Common Movement Units in Late 19th Century American Couple Dance.

Corresponding poster to the workshop described below.

 

Jones, Alan: Landrin Duport

The poster focuses on the career of dancing master Pierre Landrin Duport, from his childhood playing violin at the public balls of the Paris Opéra, to his years as dancing master in Dublin, to his career teaching in Philadelphia, Boston, New York, and Washington, D.C. It will include a portrait, maps, printed and manuscript music, and dance notation.

 

Mettel, Michaela: Dissertationsprojekt: Performing Gender? Geschlechterrollen in den Tanztraktaten der italienischen Renaissance

Grundlage des Dissertationsprojektes ist die hermeneutische Untersuchung der Rollen von Mann und Frau in den Tanztraktaten des Quattro- und Cinquecento anhand verschiedener geschichts-, sozial- und kulturwissenschaftlicher Theorien und Methoden, die in ihrer Kombination (hier vor allem im Umgang mit dem spezifischen und bisher marginal betrachteten Thema „Tanz“) eine neue Herangehensweise in diesen Disziplinen darstellen.

Der Tanz der italienischen Renaissance dient als Ausgangspunkt, um öffentliche Geschlechterrollen in einem mikrogeschichtlichen, eng definierten Handlungsraum zu analysieren. Die sozialen Rollen, die beide Geschlechter innerhalb ihrer gesellschaftlichen Schicht innehaben, sind klar definiert. Schwerpunkt der Analyse ist die Frage, ob sich diese im eigenständigen sozialen Raum des Tanzes durch Neuinszenierungen und Neudefinierungen von geschlechtlicher Identität vom gesellschaftlichen status quo emanzipieren oder diesen weiterführen.

Fragestellungen u. a. nach Selbstdarstellung, Selbstinszenierung, dem performativen Akt des Tanzens, ebenso wie das „Spiel zwischen den Geschlechtern“, die nonverbale Kommunikation des Körpers und die Ambivalenz von flüchtiger Performanz und einem ritualhaften Charakter der Tänze und deren Aufführungen erweitern die Analysekriterien.

Das Poster wird noch keine Ergebnisse präsentieren können, da es sich um ein laufendes Projekt handelt, sondern wird den Fokus auf die methodische Herangehensweise legen. 

 

Mikhailova-Smolniakova, Ekaterina: Ball Scenes in European Painting in the Late 16th-early 17th centuries and the Problem of Dance Iconography

Iconographical sources considered as main data source in case of absence text materials for particular periods or geographical regions. Prints and genre painting are most preferable iconographic sources for most part of dance academic community. With them, one could borrow information on wide range of festivity organization details: hall and table decoration, dance and social etiquette, even dance choreography and specifics of dancers’ movements. Wherein, the more often one could find some particular pose/gesture/etc., the more reliable it is considered to be. However, generally prints and genre painting had been made for sale on the art market. Pictures of these types had to be commercially successful, not original or authentic. It means: adapt to the expectations of customers and repeat traditional visual canons and compositions.

In my poster presentation, I will demonstrate that we cannot use such depictions as a documentary source in absence of any other types of sources, at least with certainty. In terms of historical authenticity, for this type of works repeatability and frequency of the same visual motive is the evidence not for, but against the prevalence of its (presumed) everyday origins. We can consider iconographical evidence as a trustworthy one if we deal with the repetition of the pose/gesture/dance position that is recognizable, but significantly different in various works of art.

 

Tuck, Bill: The Lunatic Asylum Ball: voyeuristic spectacle or dance therapy?

From the middle of the 19th century and the foundation in England of a great network of public ‘asylums for pauper lunatics’ (following the parliamentary Acts of 1808 and 1845) there evolved the practice of holding ‘balls’ regularly throughout the year. At Colney Hatch, a very large asylum on the outskirts of London, there were no fewer than 15 such balls in the year 1868. Participants at these events might include patients as well as members of the public. Regular dance classes for inmates were also frequently arranged as part of their structured leisure activities – along with musical concerts and other entertainments. Similar practices were later initiated in US and Australian asylums, as well as in those of many other countries.

Attitudes to these ‘balls’ appear, however, to have been somewhat ambiguous. Were they intended as therapy for the patients or did they merely serve as voyeuristic entertainment for a curious public (as they had almost certainly been in an earlier age when a visit to Bedlam was an essential part of any social calendar)? Their role as a sophisticated public relations exercise, serving to convince a sceptical public of the value in contributing public funds to these institutions should also not be underestimated. The poster will illustrate some of these complex attitudes toward the Asylum Ball.

 

Vecchi, Davide and Guidotti Magnani, Daniele Pascale: Dancing the Power: Dance, music and architecture in political rituals of baroque Bologna

Bologna, the second city of the Papal State and door of peninsular Italy, has a long tradition in square festivals and ceremonial entertainment. For centuries, illustrious people passing through Bologna have been honoured with celebrations including triumphal processions and ephemeral structures, fusillade’s discharges and fireworks, musical and theatrical performances, parties in the Public Palace or in aristocratic palaces. Also in this last case, parties are never “private”: the palaces can be seen as a mirror of the political center of the city – the Piazza, the Public Palace.

The climax of festivities is generally the ball in honour of special guests, who often open ceremonially the dances. Cronicles mention guests like Frederik IV of Denmark; Frederik Augustus, son of the Elector of Saxony; Violante of Bavaria, wife of the Grand Prince Ferdinando of Tuscany; James III Stuart; Charles Albert of Bavaria - Elector of Bavaria, then Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor - and his wife Maria Amalia of Austria; Carlo Emanuele III of Savoy. This poster aims to analyse some of these feasts, studying iconography, chronicles, documents, with a deep interest on the choreutical and musical perspective.

 

 

Workshops:

Daye, Anne: Law students’ Ball c.1600

The profession of law and legal training in England has been organised since medieval times through the Inns of Court in London. In Elizabethan and Jacobean times (c.1550 - 1650), students from all over England lodged in one of the inns, while studying with senior members of the legal community. Each Inn had a long tradition of communal celebrations, such as the Grand Days for dancing, music and plays held at Hallowmas (November 1st) and Candlemas (February 2nd). A number of manuscripts have survived to give us information on the dances they enjoyed and the organisation of the balls. Judges presided over the Grand Days, and senior lawyers ensured that the dancing was kept up in style. The norm was for the men to dance together, while women were invited in for special occasions.

In this workshop, participants will learn the English form of almains and courantes, called ‘the measures’. Following this warm-up, dancers will explore a proposed English version of the Spanish Pavan developed from Arbeau and Caroso as a basis for improvisation. The homosocial dancing at the Inns also included a dance for the nine muses, for which we can identify the tune to accompany the choreography. I propose that this was danced by nine men, as a symbol of peace.

The eight known manuscripts dated 1568 - 1672 relating to dancing at the Inns of Court are the only sources for social dancing in England (until the publication of country dances by Playford in 1651), and the Nine Muses dance is a unique choreography for an ensemble.

 

Feste, Irène: Variations of the "trait de la contredanse" in the 19th Century

The « trait de la contredanse », the key element of the quadrille de contredanse, in the early nineteenth century, allows dancers to move, even within the formation of a quadrille, according to a specific pattern using an elaborate combination of steps from the vocabulary of the theatrical dance (temps levé, chassé, jeté, assemblé, temps de Zéphir, pirouette, entrechat...). Thus, the « trait de la contredanse » offers multiple opportunities for dancers to show their virtuosity during the ball.

For the workshop, from one or two selected figures of the quadrille de contredanse, we work on the variety of some traits de la contredanse proposed by different dancing masters, as Gourdoux-Daux, Blanchard, Blasis, Claudius, to bring out technical differences and recurring forms. From these « traits de la contredanse », the dancers can also improvise, as did Mr Trénis, « the Vestris of ballroom », and create their own traits to show their brilliant steps.

 

de Guardiola, Susan: Waltzes, Newports, and Rackets: Common Movement Units in Late 19th Century American Couple Dance.

The rapid explosion in published dances, dance sequences, and dance steps for the couple dance repertoire in America during the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the practice of annotating such dances beat-by-beat and movement by movement (slide/glissé, leap/jeté, cut/coupé, etc.) leads to the conceptualization of variations in couple dancing of this era primarily as fixed, often lengthy, sequences of steps with weirdly colorful names: Eclair, Metropole, Antlers, Pasadena, Bronco, Manitou, etc. As a result, dance pedagogy in late nineteenth-century social dance can devolve into teaching historically insignificant sequences - dances, rather than dancing - which masks the substantial similarities among them and inhibits the development of partner connection and improvisational ability. Extracting and analyzing larger movement units employed by dancing masters across different couple dances and musical forms enables the isolation of common elements which, when taught as such, enable more effective development of high-level improvisational skill and the efficient mastery of the elaborately named choreographic sequences of the era. In this workshop, a selection of frequently-employed movement units will be taught and applied across several different dance forms, demonstrating how a relatively small repertoire of movements allows dancers to enjoy couple dancing to a wide range of music and to quickly understand and perform lengthier published dance variations.

 

Hazebroucq, Hubert: The agréments in the Ballroom Minuet after 1750: evolution, variants and functions

In a ballroom minuet, « Agréments » (ornaments), or « variations », designate the steps which can replace the basic and ordinary minuet steps, in a more or less improvised manner. If most of the sources about the Minuet before 1750 explain their use, how did this practise evolve at the end of the century?

Some more or less precise descriptions, notations or clues can be found notably in the French speaking sources, among others in Josson (1763), Brives (1779) or Guillemin (1784).They reveal that, in spite of an apparent continuity (especially with the « most frequent steps »), some important changes were introduced in their performance style, their timing, or their function, inducing new conventions and rules. The workshop will focus on a limited number of agréments, with their variants, including for example the many types of « contretemps » and the various pas de Marcel, in order to experiment these evolutions through the whole eighteenth century. We will also work on some specific combinations which tended to appear and to be codified. and will confront the treatises with some practical examples given by the notated choreographies (e. g. by Magny (1765), Malpied (c. 1780). The workshop will finally relate these variations to their role and function in the mandatory figures of the ballroom minuet (conducting, Z, giving the hands...), like e.g. the beginning and the punctuation of some figures, or the annonces ( « announcement » for the hands).

We aim thus to observe in practise the effects of the evolution of the ballroom minuet, in relation to the processes of formalization, « reduction » or enrichment due to the changes of style and taste, balancing the ceremony and the pleasure of invention.

 

Jablonka, Guillaume: Improvising the "Allemande" within the space of a ballroom: Hypothesis based on Brives Nouvelle Méthode from 1779

This workshop aims at experimenting the alternation of « passes d'allemande » on the center spot and promenades in an « attitude » around the ballroom. The three following sequences will constitute the core of the workshop : learning a few figures of « allemande à deux » by Brives, then training a few figures taken from French country dances where « passes d’allemande » happen and finally having several couples improvising « passes d'allemandes » and promenades at the same time in the same room.

Reconstructing the « Allemande » of the late 18th century is nowadays mainly based on the positions detailed by Mr. Guillaume in 1769 and the principles taught by Mr Dubois around the same period. Both treatises show engravings of the attitudes typical of this dance and explain how to manage the changes of handholds between these attitudes. But neither explains clearly how this happens in the ballroom or how the different figures are organized in the general flow of the dance. Thanks to Brives it is now possible to know how to dance the allemande as a whole: the different « passes » or figures are danced in the center of the room and each of them is followed by a promenade or « course » around the room.

Brives explanations also relate with coherence to French country dancing of the late 18th century including some « passes d’Allemande ». Called German or not, country dances may contain Allemande handholds that are performed on spot and then a « tour de course » follows in the attitude in which the dancers finished. This has nothing to do with the « tour d'allemande » that is one of the different couplets of French country dancing. During the improvised « Allemande », a common rule is needed so that all the couples can dance together in the same room: this is what this workshop is about.

 

Kondratenko, Rostislav und Filimonov, Dmitry: French branles for opening the ball in the late 16th–17th centuries

This workshop is dedicated to three branles: Simple, Gay and Poitou. These dances in different combinations were a part of an opening suite for French balls in the late 16th–17th centuries. Three most complete descriptions of these branles survived in Arbeau’s “Orchesographie” (1589), “Instruction pour dancer” (c. 1602), and de Lauze’s “Apologie de la Danse” (1623). While Arbeau’s branle descriptions are relatively straightforward, two other sources lack music and present more challenges for dance historians. Taking into account all currently known sources for these dances, as well as work on a textual and contextual analysis of “Instruction...”, we arrived at reconstructions that are compatible with each other, fit the descriptions quite well and help to explain some peculiarities of these descriptions. It allowed us to uncover underlying choreographic principles for these three branles that are the same in each of three descriptions as well as highlight differences between them. In the workshop, we’ll present our reconstructions of these dances for each of the three main descriptions. For each of the dances, we’ll discuss how these three variants relate to each other, what common features seem to persist and what differences in style can be seen there.

 

 

Dance Evenings:

Daye, Anne: "New from France": Cotillons in Georgian London

In contrast to the English country dance, the contredanse française or cotillon always had a strong French character even when composed by English masters. The numerous publications from c.1770 to c.1815 in London, Bath, Cambridge and Norwich are testimony to the popularity of this creative and sociable form throughout the Napoleonic Wars. Superseded by the quadrille, the cotillon had established many of the figures of the square set. It was danced by Jane Austen who noted in one of her last letters thanking her niece Fanny for the gift of a music book: ‘Much obliged for the Quadrilles which I am grown to think pretty enough, though they are very inferior to the Cotillions of mine own day’. Cotillon balls were a feature of the assembly room programmes, with inventive figures, delightful steps and charming music.

The cotillons will include: L’Entrée du Bal by Nicholas Lemaire 1773, Les Ombre Chinois by Thomas Budd c. 1780, Lison Dormoit by Francis Werner 1780

 

Jones, Alan: American Ball Dances from the Turn of the 19th C.

The evening will consist of longways dances and cotillions from United States collections circa 1800. We will begin with “Philadelphia Medley,” a simple longways dance by William Francis to music by Alexander Reinagle, respectively ballet master and music director of Philadelphia’s Chestnut Street Theatre, and a more complex longways dance called “The New Hampshire Allemande” by the Paris-born Pierre Landrin Duport set to a melody of his own composition. Two cotillions will be taught, including “Ah! Le bel oiseau maman,” set to a French tune by the itinerant dancing master Francis Schaffer; this is in fact a “set dance” that anticipates the quadrille, during which each of the ladies have the occasion to improvise. Time permitting, the evening will continue with an unusual Virginia dance for nine, “The Bumpkin.”

 

Menard-Pugliese, Barbara and Pugliese, Antonia: European Ballroom Dances of the second quarter of the 19th century

Between the 1810s and the 1860s ballroom dance changed dramatically. At the beginning of the century triple minor country dances and quadrilles in two-couple sets were very common. After the introduction of the polka and the flat-footed German waltz, ballroom preferences began to favor turning couples dances and four-couple quadrilles. There was still a need for dances that "may be joined in by all the company present," so contra dances developed to meet the need.

A new form of contra dance appeared that involved couple facing couple in a large circle, often described as a circassian circle. Another contra dance style arranged the dancers in lines of side-by-side couples as in La Tempete.

We will teach dances that became popular in English and European ballrooms during the 1830s, 1840s and 1850s. There will be marches, country dances, and contra dances and these will show a change from the triple minor set, where one out of three couples is more active than the others, to circassian circles and other formats, where all dancers are active all of the the time.

 

 

Short Performances:

Cie Fantaisies Baroques (dir. Pierre-François Dollé, Irène Feste): "Le Bal" a short performance for the Historical Dance Symposium

 

La Danza München (dir. Jadwiga Nowazek): „Mit ganzem Herzen und mit ganzer Seele“ – Die Ballszene aus den „Leiden des jungen Werther“ von Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

„Tanzen muß man sie sehen! ... sie ist so mit ganzem Herzen und mit ganzer Seele dabei, ihr ganzer Körper eine Harmonie, so sorglos, so unbefangen, ... als wenn sie sonst nichts dächte, nichts empfände; und in dem Augenblicke gewiß schwindet alles andere vor ihr.“ So charakterisiert Johann Wolfgang von Goethe die auf einem Ball tanzende Lotte in einem seiner berühmtesten Werke, den „Leiden des jungen Werther“ (Erstausgabe 1774). Seine treffsicheren Formulierungen verraten den überaus empfindsamen, mitfühlenden Zuschauer, der diese innere Hingabe im Tanzen wahrscheinlich auch bei sich selbst erfahren hat.

Die im Werther enthaltene Ballszene ist aus tanzhistorischer Sicht höchst interessant, u. a. auch, weil sie autobiographische Züge trägt und dadurch einen starken Realitätsbezug hat. Zwei Jahre vor dem Erscheinen des Werther, am 9.6.1772, hatte sich Goethe auf einem Ball unglücklich in Charlotte Buff verliebt, nicht wissend, dass diese schon verlobt war, und seine Erfahrungen im fiktiven Briefwechsel des Werther verarbeitet. Goethe beschreibt dort das Ballgeschehen derart anschaulich und konkret bis in einzelne Tanzfiguren hinein, dass man davon ausgehen kann, dass der reale Ball von 1772 in ähnlicher Weise verlaufen sein könnte. Es werden die gängigen Gesellschaftstänze getanzt: Menuett, Kontratanz, Deutscher Tanz – genau die Tänze, die der geniale Mozart in seiner Oper Don Giovanni (Finale 1. Akt) gleichzeitig erklingen lässt. Die Ballszene des Werther enthält mancherlei aufschlussreiche Formulierungen und Bemerkungen Goethes zur realen Tanzpraxis seiner Zeit, die Thema eines kurzen einleitenden Vortrags sind. Das Ensemble La Danza München präsentiert diese packende, mit Emotionen aufgeladene Ballszene mit Tänzen des ausgehenden 18. Jahrhunderts (Rekonstruktion: Jadwiga Nowaczek) im Wechsel mit den entsprechenden Textstellen von Goethe und erweckt sie so zu neuem Leben. 

 

Tanzkompanie Chorea Basileae (dir. Mojca Gal): Ein Ball in Ljubljana

Ljubljana liegt weit entfernt von den großen Hauptstädten wie Paris, Wien oder London. Nichtsdestotrotz lassen sich bestimmte gemeinsame Elemente sowie Gepflogenheiten bei einem Ball des hiesigen Adels und Bürgertums beobachten. Die Tanzmeister, die mithilfe von Anzeigen ihre Dienste anboten, schlugen die Gesellschaftstänze der neusten Mode vor, aber auch solistische Tänze. So lehrte der Tanzmeister Franz Joseph Fajenz im Jahr 1814 drei besondere Tänze: ein „Englisches Solo“, einen Kozàk und einen Strassburger. Der regionale slawische Einfluss lässt sich auch bei der Auswahl der Tänze des Tanzmeisters Franz Edler von Scio aus einer Anzeige von 1828 ersehen: neben dem immer noch aktuellen Menuett sowie den üblichen Quadrillen, Anglaisen, Ecossaisen, Walzer/Deutscher wirbt Scio auch damit „Obersteierisch“ sowie auch Tänze wie „Kosakisch, Mazur, Monfrin und Pollonaisse“.

Die Anzeige der Tanzmeister und erhaltene Musikquellen dienen als Anlass für eine Kurzaufführung. Ausgehen von dieser Konfiguration, wird eine Mischung aus öffentlicher Tanzstunde und Ball mit verschiedenen Paartänzen und dazwischen Soli vorgeführt werden.

Choreographie und Musik: Mojca Gal / Regie und Schauspiel: Gerrit Berenike Heiter
Tanz: Ensemble Chorea Basileae mit Alberto Arcos, Mojca, Gal, Antonin Pinget & Gudrun Skamletz